Amours diverses (French Edition)
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However, as Joseph Vianey affirms in his incomplete study of this work published in , the handwriting style employed here makes it likely that these notes were penned in the early part of the seventeenth century, that is, by one of its early readers. Often the annotation is crossed out and therefore difficult to read. Still, enough information can be salvaged to assert that the annotator has recorded, in the margins surrounding exactly fifty poems, the names of twentyfour different Italian poets, along with a page number or poem number reference, signaling a parallel passage.
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The most often cited name is that of di Costanzo, a poet whose somewhat flamboyant style was reminiscent of earlier, more extravagant Quattrocento poets such as Tebaldeo, who happens to be the second most often cited name in the margins. The vast majority of the notes clearly refer to poems contained in various anthologies, the manner of publication preferred by most Italian lyricists writing in the mids and beyond, who, by and large, chose not to arrange their poems in a canzoniere format.
One might think that the annotations that are heavily crossed out perhaps indicate a change of heart regarding the source or analogue though one does not know if the effacement was done by the original annotator or by a subsequent reader. But in several cases these paired poems are in fact very close indeed, making this hypothesis unlikely.
Regardless of whether the annotation is effaced or not, it still might reveal a certain insight into how contemporary readers approached their reading of French poems through the plethora of Italian poetry available to them primarily through the Italian anthologies. It is also here where modern editors most frequently posit a different poem as a possible source and do not mention the poem signaled by our annotator. For it is sometimes the case that Desportes has in fact closely imitated the noted model, even if such a close imitation is not explicitly asserted by the annotator.
Reading Desportes through the Italians : Two Early Modern Readers’ Responses
These eleven texts are doubtless among the poems that bear the most striking formal resemblance to their Italian model, most often by having the same thematic development throughout and frequently by echoing the incipit in some fashion or recalling specific imagery and rhyme words. The similar sounds of the French word aspic and the Italian aspe reinforce this correspondence. For this reader saw that Desportes sometimes scoured the Italian anthologies for suggestive sounds and images that could be removed from their context and subtly reworked into his own poem.
Instead, they could betray a distant affiliation to a subtext merely by repeating a single, eye-catching image and, frequently, its sound torn from its original context. Of course, the author of the r encontre knew this full well, and his multiplication of examples quickly dispels any sense that coincidence might have played a role here. Moreover, given his tongue-in-cheek tone, it seems that the anonymous author of the r encontre might also have wished to embarrass the court poet Desportes by revealing the sources of his inspiration, or the secrets of his success.
Certainly this is how contemporary readers interpreted the r encontre. It is reported that, when shown this anonymous volume by someone presumably hoping for a denial or a justification, Desportes merely shrugged off the implicit accusation of plagiarism, saying that, had he been in consulted, he would have pointed out many more resemblances.
Rather, this can be accomplished only by an extensive analysis of the contents and structural organization of the work itself. The r encontre constitutes a bilingual volume containing forty-three pairs of poems. Rather, the twinned poems here are simply placed side by side in a manner that is more suggestive of intertextual studies which is not concerned with the role of the author as an agent of imitation than imitative studies which posit an active writer who deliberately chooses to rewrite and reuse previous texts, as Renaissance literary treatises would have counseled.
Amaltheo, Gio. Andrea Gesualdo, Gio.
Indeed, had Flamini looked at the complete Italian poems in each case, he would have noticed that some of these texts had multiple variants published in different volumes and that the r encontre editor was clearly following one volume in preference to the others. Curiously, however, neither the name of Cencio nor Caro appears in the table of the r encontre.
It is also clear from a study of the variants that the r encontre author did not draw from the Giolito anthology volumes numbered 5, 6, and 7. What we might mistakenly take for an innovation on the part of our French poet might well be a faithful rendition of a variant of which we are ignorant.
First, there is quite a bit of overlap between the r encontre sources and the anonymous Lyonnais annotation. Both the R encontre editor and the Lyonnais annotator have presumably independently recognized twenty different sources from such second-tier poets as Mozzarello, Veniero, Tansillo, B. Surely the fact that two different readers could find so many different sources from the Italian anthologies here is a testament to their enduring popularity at the turn of the seventeenth century, even though these anthologies had ceased to be republished by this time.
There is no poem here by Sannazaro, who is listed in the table, while there are instead two poems by Caro and one each by Guidiccioni and Coppetta, who are not listed there. There is simply no good accounting for these discrepancies. It is not the fact, for example, that any of the poems contained in this volume was wrongly attributed to Sannazaro or that the poems by Caro, Guidiccioni, and Coppetta were attributed to another poet whose name does appear in the tavola.
One can conclude only that, as was often the case in the Giolito anthologies themselves that are replete with mistaken attributions, identifying the authors of these poems was not a high priority for the editor of the r encontre.
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Indeed, had it been so, one would have expected the names of the poets to appear on each page. The effect of this typographical layout is that, in flipping through the pages of any anthology volume, one can read a poem without necessarily knowing by whom it was written. Even when reading the poems page by page in sequence, a reader could easily forget the name of the author, particularly one with a very large selection of poems in the anthology.
Ironically, the only authors who are spared this sense of anonymity are those mostly amateur and frequently mediocre poets who had only a single poem or two printed in the volume, which would naturally appear immediately after their name.
The ordering of poems in this text appears, at first glance, to be random, for the texts clearly do not follow the alphabetical order of the introductory table, nor are all the poems taken from the same Italian source placed together. The only exceptions to this observation appear towards the end of the collection, where poems from the e pitaphes and s onnets spirituels are clustered.
Yet it is precisely this anomaly that provides the first hints that the structure of the r encontre is surely not at all haphazard. It recounts the moment of the innamoramento and documents the progress of this extraordinary love affair that took place over a period of twenty-one years until the death of the beloved lady is revealed.
In the final one hundred poems, the lover narrates his decision to turn away from his earthly passion and redirect his desires toward salvation, much as St. Augustine portrayed his conversion in the prototypical autobiography, The c onfessions. The poet thereupon continues in poems to treat the theme of his suffering, in particular his regret for having spent his time vainly wooing this cruel lady, hinting that he has had enough of this and will turn away from this foolish pursuit.
A moment of crisis occurs in when a rival is introduced who marries the lady. With his angelic lady gone, the lover turns to God in a spirit of repentance towards the end of his own life John the Evangelist identifies as Mary of Bethany but who in traditional iconography has been conflated with Mary of Magdala, popularly though inaccurately portrayed as a repentant prostitute.
By ending his canzoniere with a different Mary, while still maintaining the theme of penitence, the editor of the r encontre can at once recall his Petrarchan model while providing a new variation on that work. In so doing, the anonymous editor of the R encontre mirrors or mimics the work of Desportes and other poets who culled from the Italian anthologies in designing their own canzonieri.
Autobiographies d'un cri: Poèmes (Rameau de ciel) (French Edition)
Like the anonymous Lyonnais annotator, this editor also exhibits an implicit understanding that the Italian anthologies were used as sourcebooks containing a variety of reusable fragments. By while the Lyonnais annotator emphasized the reuse of small fragments within a single sonnet, the editor of the R encontre understood this fragmentation more globally, for he saw that individual whole poems could be recombined in an infinite number of ways to create a completely new work, as the r encontre itself, a newly minted c anzoniere in its own right, helps to prove.
Nevertheless, it is certainly possible that the r encontre editor recognized this interplay between the anthology and canzoniere formats and that this recognition prompted him to experiment with yet another possible intersection of the two heretofore distinct genres. Cognizant of the inherent discontinuity of the anthology format, this reader no doubt knew that French poets, from Du Bellay to Desportes, found in the Giolito anthologies a treasure trove of images, conceits, and rhymes that could easily be disengaged from their original context and placed in a new poem, even one with a very different thematic development.
The compiler of the r encontre, on the other hand, implicitly acknowledges that French authors throughout the sixteenth century persisted in composing canzonieri, a genre that their Italian neighbors had largely abandoned in favor of publishing their poems in an anthology format.
Yet he also saw that, in organizing these canzonieri, French poets drew from the Italian anthologies, reshaping their disparate pieces in new ways and using them as building blocks with which to construct their own personal narrative. More pertinently, this collection recreates the imitative process used by Desportes himself, demonstrating its inherent creativity, and especially proclaiming the pivotal role of the Italian anthologies as a sourcebook for Renaissance poets.
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Marot, Du Bellay, Ronsard
Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Caroline rated it liked it Apr 11, Rasha rated it did not like it May 14, El Mehdi rated it it was ok Apr 15, Didier added it Dec 31, Doria O'stark marked it as to-read Jun 17, Com added it May 03, Sophie marked it as to-read May 29, Olympia Alix added it Aug 06, Estelle marked it as to-read Jun 14, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Alphonse Allais. Alphonse Allais. Avec ses amis du quartier latin, il fait aussi partie de plusieurs groupes fantaisistes comme Les Fumistes2, Les Hydropathes ou Les Hirsutes.